Archive for the ‘Facts and Statistics’ category

Detained Youth Longitudinal Study: Cook County JTDC

January 16, 2014

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) released “The Northwestern Juvenile Project: Overview.”

This bulletin, the first in OJJDP’s Beyond Detention series, provides an overview of the Northwestern Juvenile Project, the first large-scale, prospective longitudinal study of drug, alcohol, and psychiatric disorders in a diverse sample of juvenile detainees. This bulletin provides an overview of the project and presents information on its goals, sampling and interview methods, areas of measurement, and selected findings.

It focuses specifically on youth detained at the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center so is of particular interest to us.

Here is a second bulletin based on the same data set that was released in December 2013.

 

Fewer Youth Incarcerated in Illinois: A New Report

December 21, 2013

A new report from the National Juvenile Justice Network  and Texas Public Policy Foundation shows that the number of youth confined in state and county facilities nationwide strongly declined in 2011.

“For the 2001-to-2011 ten-year period, the number of confined youth declined by 41% nationwide, or an annual average decline of 4.1% — a dramatic drop since 2000, when a record-setting 108,802 youth were held in detention centers awaiting trial or confined by the courts in juvenile facilities in the U.S. The nationwide decline in 2011 (from 70,793 to 61,423 youth) continues the trend from the previous year (the latest for which data is available), which showed youth confinement was reduced by 32% nationwide from 2001-2010.”

ILLINOIS FACTS

Between 2001`and 2011, Illinois reduced its youth incarceration rate by 41% matching the national number. The number of youth confined between 2010 and 2011 dropped by 5%. 2106 youth were confined in Illinois in 2011. Illinois confined 169 youth for every 100,000 youth in the state’s general population, or 13.3% lower than the U.S. average rate of confinement (195).

Information about the Report

The report, an update to the “Comeback States” report issued by the groups in June, uses data from 2011 (the most recent year for which national data is available) on youth confinement provided by the U.S. Justice Department’s (USDOJ) Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) to track the ongoing national reduction of youth incarceration, as well as the continued progress of the nine states leading the nation on implementing meaningful juvenile justice reforms resulting in the reduction of youth in confinement in their states. These comeback states include: California, Connecticut, Illinois, Ohio, New York, Mississippi, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin.

New Fact Sheets: Chicago School-to-Prison Pipeline

October 27, 2013

In advance of the Week of Action against School Pushout, Project NIA created a fact sheet including data about suspensions, school-based arrests, and other information.

You can find the complete fact sheet HERE (PDF).

Our volunteer Jacqui Shine generously created a set of visually appealing fact sheets based on the data. We are grateful for her contributions to our work.

suspensions-FS-2-page-001

One Page Fact Sheets:

1. Chicago School-Based Arrests (PDF)

2. Chicago Suspensions (PDF)

3. Dropouts and incarceration (PDF)

4. LGBT statistics and Restorative Justice Facts (PDF)

New Report Ranks the Rate of Disconnected Youth in the U.S.

October 24, 2013

Measure of America released a report (PDF) this week that “that ranks the 25 most populous U.S. metro areas by the share of young adults between the ages of 16 and 24 who are neither working nor in school.” The report titled “Halve the Gap by 2030: Youth Disconnection in America’s Cities” was co-authored by Sarah Burd-Sharps and Kristen Lewis.

According to the report, nearly 6 million young people (or 1 in 7) are disconnected. According to the study:

“Disconnected youth are people between the ages of 16 and 24 who are neither in school nor working. Young people in this age range who are working or in school part-time or who are in the military are not considered disconnected. Youth disconnection rates in this report are calculated by Measure of America using employment and enrollment data from the 2011 American Community Survey (ACS) of the US Census Bureau.”

Some of the key national findings from the study are as follows:

· More than one in every seven young people in America — 5.8 million teens and young adults between the ages of 16 and 24— is unemployed and not enrolled in school.

· The lowest rates of youth disconnection among the 25 most populated cities are found in Boston (9.2 percent), Minneapolis (9.5 percent), and Washington, DC (11.3 percent).

· The highest rates of youth disconnection among the 25 most populated cities are found in San Bernardino (18.8 percent), Detroit (17.4 percent), and Charlotte (17.3 percent).

· The greatest differences in youth disconnection rates are found within cities as opposed to between cities. In Chicago, New York, and Detroit, gaps of approximately 30 percentage points separate neighborhoods within the same city.

· Major differences in youth disconnection rates also exist based on race and ethnicity. In Pittsburgh and St. Louis, one in every four African American youths is disconnected, compared to one in every ten white youths. Nationwide, African Americans are about three times as likely as Asian Americans and twice as likely as whites to be disconnected in their teens and early twenties.

Some of the findings specific to the Chicago metro area are as follows:
[Please note that the Chicago metro area includes: Cook, DeKalb, DuPage,
Grundy, Kane, Kendall, McHenry, Will, and Lake Counties in Illinois;
Jasper, Lake, Newton, and Porter Counties in Indiana; and Kenosha
County in Wisconsin.]

. The rate of youth disconnection in Chicago is 14.1 percent ranking 9th best
among the 25 most populated cities. That’s a total of 166,047 young people.
In Chicago, 24.9% of African American youth 16 to 24 is disconnected while 15.6% of Latino youth and 9.2% of white youth are.

. Chicago registers a 15.7 percentage point gap between whites and African
Americans, the third-largest gap among all of the cities.

. In Chicago, Lake View and Lincoln Park have a youth disconnection rate of 2.9%, compared to South Lawndale and the Lower West Side with a rate of 33.2%.

. In Chicago, youth disconnection rates among the major racial and ethnic groups differ considerably from national averages. Both Latinos and whites in Chicago are more likely to have positive outcomes in terms of youth connection than their national counterparts. On the other hand, African Americans in Chicago have worse outcomes than African Americans nationally. Chicago African Americans have the third highest rate of disconnection after Detroit and Philadelphia. One in four African Americans is disconnected, more than two and a half times higher than the rate of their white neighbors. Latinos are at the other end of the spectrum. Only San Francisco and Washington, DC have better outcomes for Latinos. As a result of these extremes, Chicago has one of the highest gaps by race and ethnicity. Nearly sixteen percentage points separate African Americans and whites, the third highest gap after New York and Philadelphia.

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Fact Sheet: Youth School-Based Arrests at Chicago Public Schools (2012)

October 1, 2013

Special thanks to our supporter Jacqui Shine for designing this fact sheet based on our most recent data report about school-based arrests on CPS properties.

arrests-FS-1-page-001

You can download a PDF of the fact sheet HERE.

Memes Based on CPS School-Based Youth Arrest Report

September 30, 2013

Our friends at the Native Youth Sexual Health Network created some memes for us based on findings from our recent report “Policing Chicago Public Schools 2” about youth arrests on CPS properties (2011 & 2012). We have been using the memes on social media to raise awareness during the National Week of Action Against School Pushout.

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Infographic: Juvenile Incarceration in the U.S.

September 18, 2013

PSPP_juvenile_graphic(v2)

From the Pew Charitable Trusts:

Between 2010 and 2011, the number of committed youth—those locked up as a result of a court-ordered sanction—fell in 43 states, according to the most recent data released by the federal Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. The juvenile commitment rate dropped 14 percent during that period. In 2011, almost 42,000 committed youth were held on any given day in a juvenile corrections facility or other residential placement. This represents 1 in 751 youth across the United States.

Infographic: Cook County Detention Center Admissions (July 2012-June 2013)

September 1, 2013

Check out our new infographic. The graphic illustrates detention population data reported by the Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (JTDC) for the period starting on July 1, 2012 and ending on June 30, 2013.

Infographic: FY2012 Admissions to the Department of Juvenile Justice (Youth Prison System)

August 21, 2013

Check out this great interactive infographic that our friend and volunteer Eva Nagao created to share data about FY2012 admissions to the Department of Juvenile Justice.

Juvenile Arrests in Chicago – Key Findings from Two New Reports

August 5, 2013

Over the past few months, Project NIA has been working on several reports about juvenile arrests in Chicago. In May, we released a second edition of our Policing Chicago Public Schools report that focused on data about school based arrests in 2011 & 2012.

Today, we are releasing two reports.

The first focuses on trends in Chicago juvenile arrests from 2009 to 2012. It was written by Ashley Cook, Zygmunt Czykieta, Paul Mack, and Chris Skrable (with contributions by Mariame Kaba). Ashley, Ziggy, Paul and Chris undertook this research as part of an Introduction to GIS course taught by Dr. Mike Stiehl at Loyola University this spring. You can download the report HERE.

The second report is an updated version of our Arresting Justice report that we published in 2011. The new report focuses on Chicago juvenile arrests in 2011 & 2012. You can download it HERE.

Below is a summary of the key findings from both reports. We hope that you find this data useful as you work to decrease young people’s contact with the police.

Juvenile Arrests in Chicago (2012) – Key Findings at a Glance… by Mariame Kaba, Project NIA

  1. According to the Chicago Police Department (CPD), there were 22,877 arrests of youth 17 and under in 2012 (some youth may be arrested more than once). This represents a nearly 27% decline in juvenile arrests since 2009. (Arresting Justice 2, 8/13)
  2.  In 2012, black youth accounted for 79% of juvenile arrests in Chicago (Arresting Justice 2, 8/13)
  3. Expressed in per capita rates, in 2012, black youth were arrested 7.6 times per 100 youth, five times more frequently than Hispanic youth (1.5 arrests per 100 youth) and TEN times more frequently than white youth (0.7 arrests per 100 youth). (Cook, Czykieta, Mack,  Skrable, & Kaba 8/13)
  4. For the first time, we present a district by district breakdown of percentages of specific racial populations compared to the percentage of arrests constituted by members of that racial group.

Racial Breakdown of Percentage of Youth & Arrests by District (2012)

District

% Black Youth

Black % of Youth Arrests

% White Youth

White % of Youth Arrests

% Hispanic Youth

Hispanic % of Youth Arrests

1

32.70%

89.50%

35.10%

2.50%

9.01%

6.84%

2

81.60%

96.90%

8.25%

0.68%

3.48%

1.45%

3

94.40%

99.30%

1.10%

0.30%

2.05%

0.22%

4

59.90%

86.10%

3.28%

1.22%

35.40%

12.10%

5

95%

98.90%

0.32%

0.31%

3.95%

0.77%

6

97.10%

99.50%

0.19%

0.08%

1.51%

0.15%

7

96.70%

99.90%

0.14%

0.07%

1.92%

0.07%

8

19.90%

59.60%

9.23%

4.83%

69.40%

35.20%

9

12.80%

52.90%

6.63%

6.12%

69.50%

40.50%

10

29.50%

61.60%

0.92%

1.05%

69.10%

37.10%

11

84.80%

98.10%

0.93%

0.22%

12.90%

1.49%

12

23.30%

52%

11.30%

1.57%

59.40%

46.30%

13

25.10%

70.50%

24.50%

3.41%

36.50%

26.10%

14

10.60%

35.10%

18.90%

6.44%

66.50%

57.80%

15

93%

99.50%

0.71%

0.14%

4.93%

0.41%

16

1.10%

17.50%

55.40%

39.50%

35.10%

40.80%

17

3.48%

28%

25.80%

13.10%

57.70%

57.30%

18

21.10%

91.50%

60.10%

2.58%

7.01%

4.94%

19

11.80%

60.50%

61.70%

14.80%

16.30%

23.50%

20

12.90%

69.80%

34.80%

0%

32.20%

29.40%

22

60.50%

95%

32.40%

3.61%

5.19%

1.29%

24

20.40%

70.70%

27.20%

4.41%

32.10%

22.50%

25

15.40%

46.80%

6.07%

4%

76.50%

48.80%

Black youth are arrested in greater proportion than their populations represent throughout the entire city. Hispanic youth are arrested in greater proportions in a few districts on the Northside and white youth are arrested in smaller proportions than their population throughout the entire city. (Cook, Czykieta, Mack, Skrable, & Kaba, 8/13)

5. In Chicago, boys/young men were 84% of juvenile arrests in 2012 (Arresting Justice 2, 8/13).

6. More juvenile arrests in Chicago were for misdemeanor offenses (74%) in 2012 (Arresting Justice 2, 8/13).

7. In 2012, most of the juvenile arrests (64.5%) in Chicago were concentrated in 10 districts. In order of most arrests, these districts are 8, 11, 7, 15, 4, 3, 6, 5, 9, and 10 (Arresting Justice 2, 8/13).

8. There were 1,080 formal and 6,149 informal stations adjustments[1] reported by the Chicago Police Department in 2012 (Arresting Justice 2, 8/13)

Sources:

Kaba, Mariame (2013) Arresting Justice (Second Edition): Juvenile Arrests in Chicago, 2011 and 2012.

Cook, Czykieta, Mack, Skrable & Kaba (2013) Trends in Chicago Juvenile Arrests, 2009-2012.


[1] As an alternative to referring the case to Juvenile Court, a youth officer may release a young person from custody with a station adjustment. There are two types of station adjustments: informal and formal. A youth officer may give an informal station adjustment if he/she decides there is probable cause to believe the juvenile committed an offense. A formal station adjustment is different in that a juvenile must also admit involvement in the alleged offense. The juvenile’s admission can later be used as evidence against him/her if they violate the terms of the formal adjustment and his case is referred to court.

Although they are not convictions, station adjustments usually appear in a juvenile’s arrest history. All formal station adjustments must be recorded with the Illinois State Police. Informal station adjustments for felonies must also be recorded with the Illinois State Police, and informal station adjustments for misdemeanors may be recorded. Station adjustments can be expunged from a juvenile’s record.